The Gambia biography

The Gambia, officially the Republic of The Gambia and Gambia, is a country in West Africa.[a] [8] Geographically, Gambia is the smallest country in Africa [b] and is surrounded by Senegal, except for its western coast on the Atlantic Ocean.[9] It is situated on both sides of the lower reaches of the Gambia river, which flows through the centre of the country and empties into the Atlantic Ocean. The national namesake River Gambia demarcates the elongated shape of the country, which has an area of 11,300 square kilometres (4,400 sq mi) and a population of 2,468,569 people in 2024.[4] The capital city is Banjul, which has the most extensive metropolitan area in the country;[10] the second- and third-largest cities are Serekunda and Brikama.[11]

Republic of The Gambia
Coat of arms of The Gambia
Coat of arms
Motto: “Progress, Peace, and Prosperity”
Anthem: “For The Gambia Our Homeland”

Duration: 1 minute and 20 seconds.
Location of The Gambia (dark green) in western Africa

Location of The Gambia (dark green) in western Africa
Capital Banjul
13°28′N 16°36′W
Largest metropolitan area Serekunda
Official languages English
National languages
Ethnic groups

(2013 Census)
Religion

(2023)[2]
Demonym(s) Gambian
Government Unitary presidential republic
Adama Barrow
Muhammad B.S. Jallow
Fabakary Jatta
Hassan Bubacar Jallow
Legislature National Assembly
Independence from the United Kingdom
• from the United Kingdom
18 February 1965
• dissolution of the Senegambia Confederation
30 September 1989
Area
• Total
11,300[3] km2 (4,400 sq mi) (159th)
• Water (%)
11.5
Population
• 2023 estimate
2,468,569[4] (144th)
• Density
176.1/km2 (456.1/sq mi) (74th)
GDP (PPP) 2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $7.502 billion[5] (166th)
• Per capita
Increase $2,837[5] (175th)
GDP (nominal) 2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $2.388 billion[5] (185th)
• Per capita
Increase $903[5] (180th)
Gini (2015) Positive decrease 35.9[6]
medium
HDI (2021) Decrease 0.500[7]
low · 174th
Currency Gambian dalasi (GMD)
Time zone UTC (GMT)
Daylight saving time is not observed
Driving side right
Calling code +220
ISO 3166 code GM
Internet TLD .gm

Arab Muslim merchants traded with native West Africans in Gambia throughout the 9th and 10th centuries. The Portuguese in 1455 entered the region, the first Europeans to do so, but never established important trade there.[12] In 1765, the region was made a part of the British Empire by establishment of a colony.[13] In 1965, The Gambia gained independence under the leadership of Dawda Jawara, who ruled until Yahya Jammeh seized power in a bloodless 1994 coupAdama Barrow became The Gambia’s third president in January 2017, after defeating Jammeh in the December 2016 elections.[14] Jammeh initially accepted the results, but then refused to leave office, triggering a constitutional crisis and military intervention by the Economic Community of West African States that resulted in his removal two days after his term was initially scheduled to end.[15][16][17]

The Gambia has been a member of the Economic Community of West African States since its conception in 1975 and is a member of the Commonwealth,[18] with English being the country’s sole official language, both legacies of its British colonial past. The Gambia’s economy is dominated by farming, fishing, and especially tourism. In 2015, 48.6% of the population lived in poverty.[19] In rural areas, poverty was even more widespread, at almost